The Bologna System

The Bologna Process, the most characteristic element of the European Higher Education Area, is a three-cycle training structure tuned to meet the requirements of European dimensions. It includes Bachelor (first cycle studies), followed by Master (second cycle studies) and PhD (third cycle studies /doctoral studies) education.


Reasons for the change in the educational system: 

The standardized European labour market based on free flow of manpower requires alignment and transparency.


Practice in social life, production and services needs manpower with solid basic knowledge and qualification, i.e. individuals prepared to make decisions, speaking languages and ready for personal development.


The main objectives of the Bologna Declaration are to increase the mobility and employability of higher education graduates.


The basic feature of the system is to provide professional education in the three main cycles and other sublevels of training. The earned qualification represents social and labour market values; furthermore, inside the system it proves that the graduate is entitled to enter a higher level of education.


Each degree in basic higher education – first cycle - entitles the graduate to enter an MSc training course; an MSc degree opens a door to doctoral courses.


The qualification and degree, showing what kind of jobs the holder is competent in, orientates the labour market.


Even during the basic training, correction of the educational orientation is an option.  When choosing an MSc course, most Bachelor degrees allow the holder to browse in a reasonably wide spectrum of available MSc courses, thus not forced into a “narrow tube of vocational training”.


2-4 terms long MSc training (except for teacher training of five terms) offers graduates two available options: doctoral training preparing students for higher academic degrees or labour market.


In the multi-cycle system there is an opportunity for MSc students to take up studies in a field different from that they have studied during their basic higher training. E.g. a bachelor having studied technology may graduate in economics later.


The Bologna System provides a variety of trainings for agile and enthusiastic students devoted to obtain the highest qualification in the chosen field of studies. Stages are available in different ways; students can attend courses at a number of institutions in Hungary, optionally in other countries as well.


The two-cycle education is basically different from present basic higher education at colleges and universities. The goal is to provide instant expertise and teach practical skills. In the first cycle students learn basic theory and practice in the course of a vocational training.


BA, BSc graduates will possess a degree necessary to apply for a suitable job, and they will also be entitled to attend a variety of MSc courses.


BA, BSc basic higher training outcomes are defined in Decree 15/2006. (IV.3.) OM.


At our institution MSc trainings are still an important subject of development concerning establishing and launching mainstream courses. To correspond to skills and knowledge of students at other European institutions of higher education, our students are expected to be diligent to take their part in education; equally, our lecturers are to apply the most effective methods to convey expertise and necessary skills.





The total range of written, oral and practical tests, as well as projects and

portfolios, used to decide on the student’s progress in the COURSE UNIT

OR MODULE. These measures may be mainly used by the students to

assess their own progress (formative assessment) or by the University to

judge whether the course unit or module has been completed

satisfactorily against the LEARNING OUTCOMES of the unit or module

(summative assessment)


Assessment criteria

Descriptions of what the learner is expected to do, in order to

demonstrate that a LEARNING OUTCOME has been achieved.



The group of students in the same year of a given PROGRAMME OF




In the Tuning Project competences represent a dynamic combination of

attributes —with respect to knowledge and its application, to attitudes

and responsibilities— that describe the LEARNING OUTCOMES of an

educational programme, or how learners are able to perform at the

end of an educational process. In particular, the Project focuses on

subject-area related competences (specific to a field of study) and

generic competences (common to any degree course).


Comprehensive exam

ASSESSMENT of the overall LEARNING OUTCOMES achieved over the past/previous



Contact hour

A period of 45-60 minutes teaching contact/cooperation between a

staff member and a student or group of students.


Continuous assessment

Tests taken within the normal teaching period as part of an annual or

the final ASSESSMENT.



Voluntary adoption of suitable policies for the achievement of a

common goal. Convergence in the architecture of national educational

systems is pursued in the Bologna process.


Course unit or Module

A self-contained, formally structured learning experience with a coherent




Taught COURSE UNITS, TUTORIALS etc., which are a preparation for further

independent work.


The «currency» used to measure student WORKLOAD in terms of the



Credit accumulation

In a credit accumulation system LEARNING OUTCOMES totalling a specified

number of CREDITS must be achieved in order to successfully complete a

semester, academic year or a full PROGRAMME OF STUDY, according to the

requirements of the programme. Credits are awarded and accumulated

if the achievement of the required learning outcomes is proved by



Credit framework

A system that facilitates the measurement and comparison of LEARNING

OUTCOMES achieved in the context of different qualifications, PROGRAMMES OF

STUDY and learning environments.


Credit level

An indicator of the relative demand of learning and of learner autonomy.

It can be based on the year of study and/or on course content (e.g.,



Credit type

An indicator of the status of course units in the PROGRAMME OF STUDY. It

can be described as Core (major course unit), Related (unit providing

instrument/support) and Minor (optional course unit).



A course of study leading to an academic DEGREE. One of the objectives

indicated in the Bologna Declaration is the «adoption of a system

based on two main cycles, undergraduate and graduate.» DOCTORAL

STUDIES are generally referred to as the third cycle.



Qualification awarded by a higher education institution after successful

completion of a prescribed PROGRAMME OF STUDY. In a CREDIT ACCUMULATION

system the programme is completed through the accumulation of a

specified number of credits awarded for the achievement of a specific



Diploma supplement

The Diploma Supplement is an annex to the original qualification

designed to provide a description of the nature, level, context, content

and status of the studies that were pursued and successfully completed

by the holder of the qualification. It is based on the model developed by

the European Commission, Council of Europe and UNESCO/CEPES. It

improves the international transparency and the academic/professional

recognition of qualifications


Doctoral student



Doctoral studies or Doctoral programme

Course of study leading to a DOCTORATE.


Doctorate or Doctoral degree

A high level qualification which is internationally recognised as

qualifying someone for research or academic work. It will include a

substantial amount of original research work which is presented in a

THESIS. It is generally referred to as the degree awarded after completion

of third cycle studies.


ECTS (European Credit Transfer System)

A system for increasing the transparency of educational systems and

facilitating the mobility of students across Europe through credit transfer.

It is based on the general assumption that the global workload of an

academic year of study is equal to 60 credits. The 60 credits are then

allocated to course units to describe the proportion of the student

workload required to achieve the related LEARNING OUTCOMES. Credit

transfer is guaranteed by explicit agreements among the home

institution, the host institution and the mobile student.


Elective course

A course to be chosen from a predetermined list.



Normally formal written and/or oral test taken at the end of a course unit

or later in the academic year. Other assessment methods are also in use.

Tests within the course unit are classed as CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT.


First degree

First HIGHER EDUCATION qualification taken by the student. It is awarded

after the successful completion of first CYCLE studies which, according

to the Bologna Declaration, should normally last a minimum of three

years or 180 ECTS credits.



A final evaluation based on the overall performance in the PROGRAMME



Graduate or Postgraduate studies

A course of study following a FIRST DEGREE and leading to a SECOND



Grant or Scholarship or Fellowship

Payment made to some or all students to cover fees and/or living

expenses. It may come from national/local governments or charitable

foundations or private companies.


Group project

A piece of work given to a group of students which needs co-operative

work for completion. This work may be assessed either individually or

as a group.

Higher education

PROGRAMMES OF STUDY which may be entered by students holding either a

qualified school leaving certificate of an upper secondary school after a

minimum of twelve years of schooling or other relevant professional

qualifications. Providers may be universities, universities of professional

studies, higher education institutions or colleges.


Independent project

A piece of work given to a single student or a group of students for

completion. This work will be assessed either individually or as a group.


ICT teaching

Teaching/studying/learning making use of information and communication

technology. It usually takes place in e-learning environments.


Intensive course

A short full time course of one to four weeks concentrating on a particular

topic. It may take place at another institution or in a summer school.


Learning outcomes

Statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and/or be

able to demonstrate after completion of a process of learning. Learning

outcomes are distinct from the aims of learning, in that they are

concerned with the achievements of the learner rather than the overall

intentions of the teacher. Learning outcomes must be accompanied by

appropriate ASSESSMENT CRITERIA which can be used to judge that the

expected learning outcomes have been achieved. Learning outcomes,

together with assessment criteria, specify the minimum requirements for

the award of CREDIT, while marking is based on attainment above or below

the minimum requirements for the award of credit. Credit accumulation

and transfer is facilitated if clear learning outcomes are available to

indicate with precision the achievements for which the credit will be




Provision of content by presentation and explanation (possibly including

demonstration) by a lecturer.



Any numerical or qualitative scale used to describe the results of






Notional learning time

The average number of hours a student will take to achieve specified



Optional course

A COURSE UNIT or MODULE which may be taken as part of a PROGRAMME OF

STUDY but is not compulsory for all students.

Oral presentation

A verbal presentation to a lecturer and possibly other students by an

individual student. It may be on a topic researched by the student in

the published literature or a summary of project work undertaken.


Postdoctoral researcher

A recently qualified researcher with a DOCTORATE, who will probably be

employed on a short term contract.



A written presentation of some work on a display which can be read

by a number of people.


Programme of study

An approved set of COURSE UNITS or MODULES recognised for the award of

a specific DEGREE. A programme of study can also be defined through

the set of LEARNING OUTCOMES to be achieved for the award of a specified

number of CREDITS.


Research student or doctoral student

A student seeking to obtain a degree primarily on the basis of research.


Resit exams

Additional EXAM session offered to students who have not been able to

take or pass their exams on the first dates scheduled.


Second degree

Second HIGHER EDUCATION QUALIFICATION qualification taken by a student

after the FIRST DEGREE. It is awarded after the successful completion of

second CYCLE studies and may involve some research work.


Skills and competences

The skills and COMPETENCES developed as an outcome of the learning

process can be divided into «subject-area related» and «generic».



A period of instruction based on written or oral contributions by the




Member of academic staff of the University who monitors the progress

of a DOCTORAL STUDENT, provides advice and guidance, and may be

involved in assessing the THESIS. S/he will normally be a member of the

research group where the student is working.



A formally presented written report, based on independent research

work, which is required for the award of a degree (generally SECOND



Tuition fees / Tutorial fee

Charges made by university to student for teaching and/or supervision.


Developing agreement and harmony by combining single sounds into a

common «tune» or pattern of sounds. In the case of the Tuning

project, it relates to higher education structures in Europe and

recognises the diversity of traditions as a positive factor in the creation

of a dynamic common HE area.



A period of instruction given by a tutor aimed at revising and discussing

materials and topics presented at LECTURES.


Undergraduate studies

A course of study leading to a FIRST DEGREE.



All learning activities required for the achievement of the LEARNING

OUTCOMES (i.e., lectures, practical work, information retrieval, private

study, etc.).



A supervised session where students work on individual tasks and

receive assistance and direction when needed.